Tuesday, January 10, 2017

It's not about thinking with your eyes closed

Most people who believe they are meditating are merely thinking with their eyes closed. - Sam Harris
"Most people who believe they are meditating are merely thinking with their eyes closed"
- Sam Harris

I would add that sitting on a cushion at a retreat for 60 hours a week is not necessarily meditation, although it could be.

It depends on what is going on internally.

I've heard examples of modern meditation teachers recommending that their students actively think and analyze on the cushion.  At some level I find this frightening and I would tend to disagree.  I think this is quite possibly pointing in the wrong direction, that it may be training people to strengthen and practice their attachment and prejudice towards thought, something that instead needs to be un-done, un-learned.

On the other hand, it is possible to some extent for a person to be relatively unattached to their thinking, to merely observe the thoughts that arise, and that indeed can be a part of meditation practice, but notice this is not the same as the recommended steering and analyzing and grasping, but rather a mindful witnessing of what is.

In part this has resulted from a seemingly well intended political correctness about thought in meditation, at least among the consensus meditation community.  Once upon a time, a few decades ago, no-thought was used prominently as a pointer, and it remains an excellent pointer if understood correctly.  The danger is that some people would assume there should be an aversion to thought and would therefore resist thought.  The largely modern western groups reacted to this by pretty much abolishing talk of no-thought.  But grasping and resistance were never part of the practice.  Being mindfully aware and relaxed and open, and leaning in the direction of the non-conceptual, abandoning whatever grasping and resistance that can be abandoned, surrendering to the moment, that is the practice.

The practice is a letting go of what can be let go of, not of shunning or resisting thought.

In my experience, there is grasping with every thought, at least on the cushion.  On the cushion, everything is taken care of, there is nothing to do, nowhere to go, no one to be.  Thoughts in that situation, although natural at some level, reflect a degree of dissatisfaction with the present moment.  But the experience of thoughts subsiding, relaxing down to the level of a few proto-thoughts, is a sign that you are on the right track.  Although perhaps an advanced practice, one simply watches these arising and lets go of them as they are seen.

Part of the political correctness stems from the misunderstanding of the no-thought pointer.  But there are a couple of other pieces to the puzzle.  For example, there is a general recommendation to "investigate" experience, and Buddha himself clearly does a bit of thinking and analyzing.  My take would be that sure, you can do some of that, but I would recommend doing it off the cushion.  I would recommend staying away from discursive analysis on the cushion and instead emphasize "feeling" your experience.  What does your experience really feel like?  What does that fear or that tension in the body really feel like?  What happens when we stop resisting that?  We're living in a world of people that are out of touch with their bodies and feelings, like brains on a popsicle stick.  We need to practice the non-verbal.  We need to practice just being.

Similarly, the western Buddhist experience has been substantially blended with psychology over the past few decades.  This may not be a bad thing.  But again, when I hear someone at a dharma talk saying that they plan to spend their next retreat "meditating" on their relationship with their partner, my heart falls a bit.  Who knows, maybe what that person needs is a lot of psychological think time.  But I wouldn't call it meditation.  I do recommend psychological work, I think everyone is on a spectrum of neurosis, but again I would recommend that work be done off the cushion.

Time on the cushion is precious time, it is an opportunity to practice being aware and letting go.  Grasping at stories is not that.  And as my guitar teacher put it, practice makes permanent.  You practice sloppy, your playing will be sloppy.  Guaranteed.  Practice being aware and letting go, abandon whatever you can.

Another Reason for Noting Practice

The article, "Things You Can Do to Cheer Up, According to Neuroscience", in the segment "He-Who-Actually-Must-Be-Named", explains that:

“To reduce arousal, you need to use just a few words to describe an emotion, and ideally use symbolic language, which means using indirect metaphors, metrics, and simplifications of your experience. This requires you to activate your prefrontal cortex, which reduces the arousal in the limbic system. Here's the bottom line: describe an emotion in just a word or two, and it helps reduce the emotion.”
This is the essence of noting practice, to continuously describe what is more or less predominate in awareness.

Friday, December 23, 2016

Basic Meditation Styles - An Overview

An attempt to gather together some of the best meditation and "liberation" techniques available.  Ideally, one would engage with each of these practices for several hours to a week, finding and/or creating what works best for you, and then work on mastery.


We might also call this something like absorption or stability practice, but at any rate we're talking about some kind of continuous single-pointed focus on / absorption into / stability with - a specific meditation object, such as the breath.  Ideally, one would practice and partially master some form of concentration prior to practicing mindfulness, or perhaps do some concentration practice for the first few minutes of a mindfulness session.  This kind of practice seems to help a bit with keeping continuous, and people who have learned to practice in this way tend to make faster progress when they switch to mindfulness.

Styles of Concentration Practice:

  • Following (Feeling) the Breath, at the tip of the nose or the diaphragm
  • Following the Breath with Breath Counting
  • Staring at an object (like a ball)


Mindfulness is about awareness of awareness, about being "present".  In a certain way, we could say that we are always aware, in everyday life.  While daydreaming, for example, we are at least aware of the daydream.  But we are generally otherwise lost while daydreaming.  To the extent that we are lost or embedded in our imagination, attached to the daydream, unaware of the sensate world, as we typically are when the mind is wandering, we are not really free.

On the other hand, if we do have awareness of awareness, if we know what we are aware of while we are aware of it and can for example stand back and name it, we have some metaphorical distance, we have some freedom.  This distance, this non-attachment, is an important component of mindfulness, and practicing with this aspect in mind is ultimately what leads to what we might call liberation.

So non-attachment, ultimately letting go of craving and resistance, and letting everything be as it is, is the ultimate goal.  But, at least at first, it cannot happen without awareness of awareness.  Getting this kind of mindfulness happening a very high percentage of the time, and very continuously is a prerequisite for the practice of letting go.

Some rare individuals may be able to to practice without technique, just sitting, simply intending very earnestly to remain mindful.  But realistically, most people will require some kind of technique, often something very structured, to maintain this kind of awareness.  Regardless of technique, one's intention and earnestness is a key component of success (the current catch-phrase is "deliberate practice").

Styles of Mindfulness Practice:


Note that here some practices categorized above as concentration are being presented as mindfulness.  There is some overlap, the difference here would be that these practices might be thought of as anchors within a larger context of being mindful of all experience.

Breath following

  • The prototypical form of meditation.  Focus on feeling the breath.

Breath counting

  • Following and feeling the breath, but using the structure of counting to help keep oneself on track.  A typical method would be to count the out-breaths up to 10, and then start over with 1.

Breath counting with mantra

  • Something I devised for myself.  On the in-breath try a mantra such as "feeling" and on the out-breath do counting.

Body scanning

  • The attention is on the body, scanning and feeling one's way from the crown of the head down to the toes and then back from toe to head, sweeping the attention slowly and continuously.  Typically scanning takes several minutes to complete a full head-toe-head cycle.

Mantra, a repeated word or phrase

  • There are ancient mantras such as "om", but I recommend that mantras be customized to your specific situation.  For example, a beginner might benefit from a mantra such as "aware", or "awareness".  My overall recommendation would be "feeling", in order to point back to sensate experience.  Mantras can be used in an almost koan-like sense, with the intention of pointing to, or creating curiosity about, something wordless like "stillness", "tranquility", or "love", or "thank you".


  • A short version of noting I have described is notice what is roughly predominate in awareness and label it, about once per second, as either seeing, hearing, feeling, or thinking, or "don't know".  A more detailed version of this style ended up working well for me, your mileage may vary.  Here's a link to thorough instructions for mastering the noting style.
  • Noting can also be performed out loud, as well as back and forth with a partner (ping-pong or dyadic noting)

Inquiry or Direct Awareness

Inquiry is generally about trying to get a direct sense of "beingness" with questions such as:

  • Who am I?
  • What am I?
  • What is this?

Similar to Zen koan practice, these are not to be literally answered, but rather the idea is to sit with the curiosity and awareness and the sense of "I am" or "being".

Metta (loving friendliness)

The focus is on the positive, generating loving friendliness and compassion, typically performed with several phrases such as the following, starting with the "I" form and working out to all beings.

  • May I/you/all beings be happy
  • May I/you/all beings be healthy
  • May I/you/all beings live in peace
Also, alternative forms such as imagining that people are happy to see you.

Some Alternative Forms/Techniques/Approaches that may be Helpful

  • Sitting with the question, "how am I experiencing this moment of being alive?" (a useful version of inquiry practice, called Actualism, from the obtuse website Actual Freedom)
  • Viewing the totality as it actually appears from your perspective, with no head. (The Headless Way)
  • Viewing the totality with a sense of that totality (Sperry Andrews)
  • Focusing, a technique similar to mindfulness and releasing techniques.
  • MBSR, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction, is a well studied secular version of meditation practice.  Their seven attitudinal factors are non-judging, patience, beginner's mind, trust, non-striving, acceptance, and letting go.  Comprehensive free MBSR course.
  • Mindful Prayer (including non-religious prayer to, say, your true nature)
  • Forgiveness work
  • Guided meditation recordings
  • Mindfully listening to ambient music 

Sitting with feelings and asking oneself the following series of questions (Sedona Method - similar to any number of "release" methods):
  • (1) "could I let this go", or "could I allow this feeling to be here" or "could I welcome this feeling", then 
  • (2) "would I let this go", and finally, 
  • (3) "when?"

Advanced Practice:

Just Sitting

  • Ideally nothing needs to be done here.  This would be an advanced style where the meditator has already trained the mind to be aware and relaxed.

Objectless Absorption

  • Just sitting can become an absorption.  It is difficult to describe the object here, it would be something like the background of all experience.

Getting It Done

It should go without saying, but these kinds of things need to be actually practiced and mastered.  It's not a matter of reading a technique and understanding the concept, it's a matter of sitting down and continually practicing a given technique until it becomes second nature, until it becomes automatic, until the body/mind acquires a new default.

Deliberately learning a few diverse techniques will give you a better idea of the overall direction that is being pointed at, and will give you a better idea of what works for you and what you should focus on.  And that may change over time, as beginners often tend to need more concrete and structured techniques, while experts will probably lean towards less structure and more just being or absorption.

This collection was in part inspired by the Finders Course*.  In that course, participants engage in a "greatest hits" variety of meditation and positive psychology techniques, finding what works for them, and commit to a minimum of around one hour of practice a day for over 4 months.  People meet and share regularly in online video chats.  Goals are made for practice and are evaluated weekly.  That's the kind of behavior that indeed gets it done.

* Finders Course Techniques and Protocol post on Reddit

Monday, August 29, 2016

[Advanced] Six Words of Advice

In Tibetan, Six Words of Advice by Tilopa, translated by Ken McLeod.
  • Don’t recall - Let go of what has passed
  • Don’t imagine - Let go of what may come
  • Don’t think - Let go of what is happening now
  • Don’t examine - Don’t try to figure anything out
  • Don’t control - Don’t try to make anything happen
  • Rest - Relax, right now, and rest
This would be considered advanced in the sense that it is a "do nothing" approach, like the "just sitting" or "open awareness" style of Shikantaza in Zen, or here in the native style of Tibetan Mahamudra or Dzochen, "nonconceptual awareness".  Beginners often need to assiduously practice structured methods until the mind is stable and relaxed, but these are great pointers to what can be going on amidst the structure.

Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Vipassana or Insight Meditation - Mahasi Noting Style

Expanding on the post Noting Style of Meditation in 15 Seconds, the mind needs to be trained to be aware, in an awareness of awareness kind of way, and within that, needs to be trained to relax.

As far as the awareness side, many styles can accomplish this but I feel the Mahasi style is one of the best as it mechanically requires one to do exactly what needs to be done.

From a companion site, here is a collection of instructions for the Vipassana or Insight Meditation style that we would call the Mahasi or Noting Style that is used in the southeastern Asia Theravada Buddhist world.

Monday, July 27, 2015

Noting Style Meditation in 15 Seconds

This comes in part from a stripped down version of noting practice that Jud Brewer, a neuroscientist, mentioned using with research subjects in the fMRI machine.  Apparently it worked decently in terms of aligning brain activity with what has been observed in advanced meditators.  Okay, start your timers:

Notice what is roughly predominate in awareness and label it, about once per second, as either seeing, hearing, feeling, or thinking.  Or don't know.

That's it.

The structure there is based on the 6 basic sense "doors", which are the 5 traditional senses plus thinking.  Within the 5 senses smelling and tasting have been dropped for simplicity and because those don't tend to come up that often in formal meditation.

Notice that "seeing" is the note even if your eyes are closed, if your attention is on the visual field.  Same for "hearing" even if what you are hearing is imagined.

Instruction Oriented Articles